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Honda cbr1000rr 1

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Aruna wasantha liyanage | 4:09 PM | , , , ,

                                                            Honda cbr1000rr

How much power is too much power? In the motorcycle world, it’s a question that will never be answered. But if you love customs and don’t mind changing your underwear after every ride, Bill Webb has the solution for you.
His latest creation is the Stoc RR: a 178 hp Honda CBR1000rr turned into a “café fighter.” It’s a stripped-back sportbike with a retro-futuristic vibe, and because Bill is an industrial designer, the mods are easily installed and don’t require welding skills.

Thankfully the CBR hasn’t lost its other main strength when it comes to performance: agile, balanced handling. And the Öhlins suspension front and rear only adds to the Honda’s competence in the corners. Both the NIX30 fork and TTX36 rear shock perform superbly, offering nice compliance on the smaller pavement irregularities and excellent control on the bigger hits. Well-sorted spring and damping rates allow you to make full use of the CBR’s lithe and sharp steering habits since the chassis isn’t dancing around underneath you, translating to confident quick-flick corner entries that enable you to exploit the Honda’s responsive engine.
We had a standard 2014 Honda CBR1000RR alongside at the racetrack for a direct comparison, and it was easy to feel the difference in suspension action and how it influenced the rest of the chassis performance—and it should be remembered that the Showa BPF and Balance-Free rear shock are some of the better stock components available. Although competent in its own right, the Showa suspension had an overall harsher feel than the Öhlins pieces when tightened up for track use; the Showa fork and shock were comparatively firm throughout their range of travel, while the Öhlins units had an almost adaptive feel to them, combining compliance with control. A suspension’s ability to retain compliance when firmed up for track use is a sure sign of higher-quality internals.

Also adding to the CBR SP’s performance repertoire are the Brembo M4 monoblock calipers. While it can’t be said that the Brembos are any more powerful than the standard model’s Nissin calipers, where the Brembos excel is in feel under very hard braking. The Nissin calipers and pads have a comparatively strong initial response, followed by a very progressive ramp-up in braking power as more braking pressure is applied. This requires care as you approach the limits of braking in order to avoid overpowering the front tire. The Brembos, on the other hand, have a slightly softer response, but their feel is much better, and the braking power is more linear, meaning the performance envelope you have to play with is much wider. We also found the SP’s slipper clutch to be much more amenable to aggressive corner entries than previous CBRs, with less movement under rapid-fire downshifts.


MSRP $16,699

Type Liquid-cooled, transverse inline-four
Valve arrangement DOHC, 4 valves/cyl., shim-under-bucket adjustment
Displacement 999cc
Bore x stroke 76.0 x 55.1mm
Compression ratio 12.3:1
Induction PGM-DSFI, 46mm throttle bodies, dual injectors/cyl.
Transmission 6-speed

Front suspension Öhlins 43mm NIX30 inverted fork, adjustments for spring preload, rebound, and compression damping, 4.7 in. travel
Rear suspension Öhlins TTX36 shock absorber, adjustments for spring preload, rebound, and compression damping, 5.4 in. travel
Front brake Dual 320mm rotors with Brembo M4 monoblock radial-mount four-piston calipers
Rear brake Single 220mm rotor with single-piston caliper
Front wheel 3.5x17 in., cast aluminum alloy
Rear wheel 6.0x17 in., cast aluminum alloy
Front tire Pirelli Diablo Supercorsa SP, 120/70ZR-17
Rear tire Pirelli Diablo Supercorsa SP, 190/55ZR-17
Rake/trail 23.0°/3.7 in. (96mm)
Wheelbase 55.5 in. (1410mm)
Seat height 32.3 in. (820mm)
Fuel capacity 4.6 gal. (17.5L)
Weight 450 lb. (204kg) wet, all fluids; 422 lb. (192 kg) dry, all fluids no fuel
Fuel consumption 29–37 mpg, 35 mpg avg.


Quarter-mile 9.83 sec. @ 143.75 mph (corrected)
Roll-ons 60–80 mph/3.0 sec.; 80–100 mph/NA
2014 Honda CBR1000RR SP
Engine Balancing—How Much Is It Worth?
The CBR1000RR SP sales brochure touts the engine’s “hand-selected parts like pistons and connecting rods for weight and balance to improve track performance.” When you have an engine spinning at five-digit rpm, the weight of every single reciprocating component gets magnified tremendously, so not only is less weight desirable, but matching those weights as close as possible to reduce uneven loading on supporting rotating parts can be of major importance. If you’ve ever felt the vibration from running an out-of-balance tire/wheel at high speed, then you can imagine the forces that are generated by a crankshaft spinning at 13,000 rpm.
Reducing that imbalance results in a smoother-running engine—but what about other benefits? We asked HyperCycle proprietor Carry Andrew [, (818) 988-8860]—who has extensive experience building both AMA championship-winning roadrace engines and wildly modified sportbikes that have graced the pages of Sport Rider in the past—for his opinion on the benefits of the CBR’s matched pistons and rods.
“For a stock engine, matching pistons and rods is not going to result in more power,” Andrew stated. “It will mostly benefit engine vibration and extend component life. The only time it really offers advantages is when you’re constantly turning really high rpm like a roadrace bike, and even then, you’d have to be talking about a very high-horsepower modified engine to see a real power difference.”
With racing regulations evolving more and more toward using stock engine internals to reduce costs, the CBR’s balanced pistons and rods should benefit superbike racers as they try to squeeze as much power as possible out of less-modified engines. But Andrew said that manufacturing tolerances with most OEM engine component companies is already pretty good, as they need to demonstrate durability with stock engines turning five-digit engine speeds for the life of the motorcycle. “It’s been pretty rare when I’ve found stock pistons with more than a gram of difference between them,” Andrew recalled.

Apple MacBook Air MD760LL/B 13.3-Inch Laptop 1

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Aruna wasantha liyanage | 3:50 PM | , , ,

                                  Apple MacBook Air MD760LL/B 13.3-Inch Laptop

Apple’s MacBook line of laptops has long been regarded as among the best in the industry, for good reason. Without exception, every MacBook ever built was created with the best in quality, simplicity and ease of use in mind.
The Apple MacBook Air MD760LL/B 13.3-Inch Laptop continues to live up to the MacBook’s sterling reputation. Although it has a larger screen, this attractive and durable laptop is still super-light and just as dependable as its predecessor.
It’s also quite powerful as laptops go, offering some pretty awesome features and hardware, as listed below: 

13.3-inch LED-backlit glossy widescreen display (1440 x 900px)
Integrated Intel HD Graphics 5000
Fourth Generation 1.4 GHz Intel Core i5 CPU
128 GB Solid State Drive (SSD)
Ultrafast 802.11ac Wi-Fi
Bluetooth 4.0
One high-speed Thunderbolt port
Two high-speed USB 3.0 ports
One SDXC flash memory card slot
HD 720p FaceTime camera
Up to 12 hours of battery life
Weighs just 2.96 pounds
OS X Mavericks operating system
The MacBook Air MD760LL/B is light, super-fast and easy to use most anywhere that you might need it. The display is bright and clear. The keyboard is responsive and feels good to the touch. And as with all MacBooks, the touchpad is just about the best you’re likely to find on any laptop, period.

The only thing that’s really lacking in this machine is a touch screen, but since it’s a laptop instead of a tablet I don’t see this as much of an issue at all.
Every time I review one of these ultra-portable laptops, I feel that I have an obligation to point out that they don’t come with a built-in optical drive. But if you really need one, you can pick up an external USB optical drive starting at around $15.
Bottom line: The MacBook Air MD760LL/B is a joy to use thanks to its exquisite combination of style, power, portability and speed. If you’re looking for a small, yet extremely capable laptop for either business or personal use, this little gem from Apple is well worth strong consideration in my opinion.

Chromebook 11 for Schools 0

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Aruna wasantha liyanage | 3:05 PM | , , , ,

                                                                  Chromebook 11 for Schools

Chromebooks are continuing their push into classrooms, this time with a new model from Dell. The company announced today its new Chromebook 11 for education, along with a similarly sized Latitude laptop for schools and two new Venue tablets.

While it looks the same as the original Dell Chromebook 11 for education, the new model enjoys some notable design upgrades. The display and the keyboard deck are connected by a 180-degree hinge, so its more flexible in students’ hands and can be laid completely flat. There are no small crevices or holes for students to spill drink or food in either, thanks to the keys and touch pad being sealed into the keyboard deck.

The new design has been rigorously tested to withstand even the strongest backpack throws, passing tests that ensure protection from drops, spills, heat, dirt, humidity and vibrations. The Chromebook’s information is protected as well, using Dell’s KACE systems management console that lets administrators and technicians monitor, control and manage school networks on a district-wide scale.

dell_chromebook_edu4But the most noticeable difference is the thin, oval light at the top right of the Chromebook’s lid. This is Dell’s new activity light that shines different colors depending on how the teacher wants to use it in the classroom. Students control the light while using the Chromebook, clicking the appropriate button to change the light which faces the teacher. They can choose, say, red for asking a question, or yellow when they need assistance with a task.

The new Dell Chromebook 11 has decent guts underneath its freshly-redesigned body. It runs on a 2.6GHz Intel Celeron Bay Trail-M N2840 processor, will come a 16GB eMMC SSD hard drive, and will be available with either 2GB or 4GB of memory. It will also come with essential ports for students: one USB 3.0 port, one USB 2.0 port, an HDMI port, an SD card slot and a Kensington lock slot for extra security.

Schools will also have the option to choose from an 11.6-inch Gorilla Glass display or anti-glare touchscreen. Dell reports the new Chromebook 11 will be able to last 10 hours on a single charge, so students will be able to use the notebook all day without worrying about powering up.


Dell is likely trying to keep up with the numerous new Chromebooks coming out, both for education and for consumers. Acer last month announced two new Chromebooks for students, the C740 and C910, which are due later this year. But Dell has put a lot of time and effort into student and teacher products for years – the design touches of this new Chromebook, particularly the activity light, show what the company has learned from being deeply integrated in the education sphere.

The new Chromebook 11 will be the first product available in Dell’s new array of education devices: it’s available today (Feb. 12) and starts at $249. Also coming out later this year is the Latitude 11 notebook, a smaller version of Dell’s Latitude 13 for education, and two new Venue tables. The Dell Venue 10 Pro Series 5000 will run Windows 8.1 and start at $349, and the Android 5.0-based Venue 10 Series 5000 (cost yet to be announced). 

Do you and your Insurance 0

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Aruna wasantha liyanage | 8:47 AM | ,

                                   Do you and your Insurance Company know your Liability

Traffic signs are everywhere. They provide us with warnings, directions and information. They can be found along public roadways, private roadways and parking lots. As of June 13, 2014 all agencies with public and private roadways which are opened for public travel are required to have a traffic sign assessment and management plan in place.

I know what you are thinking, that's great the government has more paperwork to add to their already inflated bureaucracy. Though that may be the case, if you are a commercial or industrial business, mall, shopping center, home owner's association, convenience store, gas station, just to name a few, with a parking lot or roadways, you should be preparing for traffic sign Retroreflectivity.

Why should you be concerned or taking note of traffic sign assessment and management? Well simply put if you allow motorists to drive on your property, which would almost be impossible not to, you are entering new realm of possible liability.

You along with your Insurance Company should know what the failure to prepare and plan for traffic sign assessment and management can mean. I bet most agencies and businesses don't even know what traffic signs are their responsibilities.

Why don't you humor me and let me give you an example how this can affect you. When your property was built, more than likely you or the owner at the time had to obtain a driveway or highway occupancy permit to enter and exit the public roadway. More than likely your plan had a stop sign at the entrance, no big deal, right? Wrong, if a driver leaving your property pulls out into the path of an oncoming vehicle and there is an accident, one of the things that the investigating agencies will be looked at is whether the proper traffic signs are in place and in operational condition. They will look at the signs in helping to determine who is at fault. Maybe not a huge deal if it is a fender bender, but what if there are major injuries or even worse a death. Now you can be certain the insuring parties, or family of the injured or dead are going to be looking for someone to pay for the damages and pain and suffering.

Get my point! In the example above we are only talking about one sign, a stop sign. Let me ask you a few things that the investigators will probably asking.

Property owner, what was the date the stop sign was installed? Do you have records of the purchase? Did the stop sign meet the highway traffic sign standards at the time of installation? Where did you purchase the sign? Was it installed to the proper height and mounting standards as required by the highway standards? When was the sign last assessed for compliance?

Holy cow! As a property owner how would you know any of that information? Simple: a traffic sign assessment and management program.

Now many permit and civil plans for properties have more than one stop sign on them, many have multiple signs. Did you also know that some state, county and local agencies add wording to the permit plans that give responsibility for the new roadway signs added during construction to the property owner. I know, you are asking why, would they do that. Simple, alleviate or pass the responsibility to someone else. Smart on their part, but bad for you and you insurance company.

The MUTCD (Manual on Uniformed Traffic Control Devices) is about to make all of our lives a little bit more interesting. I believe the door is opening for a flood of liability claims relating to traffic signs. The MUTCD and Federal Highway Administration have stated that private roads open to public travel are required to meet provisions of the MUTCD, including the minimum retroreflectivity standards. I know some people will argue that parking lots are not included, however I believe this extends to parking lots. My logic behind this is that there are drive lanes in a parking lot and what is a drive lane other than a private road. But hey I will let the lawyers argue that point in court.

A statistic obtained from Auto Insurance, indicated that Nationwide Insurance's 2012 claim data showed 13 percent of all accidents occur in parking lots. During my research I have found that injuries to pedestrians are one of the fastest growing types of accidents which occur in parking lots. So my next question is are your Pedestrian crossing signs compliant?

As you can see, I am trying to make a point, if you do not have a traffic sign assessment and management plan in place or think that it can't happen to you all I can say is good luck. But just remember an implemented plan may be the cheapest insurance you could purchase.

Sorce : ezinearticles

Search engine optimization 0

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Aruna wasantha liyanage | 2:01 PM | ,

                      Search engine optimization

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine's "natural" or un-paid ("organic") search results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, academic search, news search and industry-specific vertical search engines.
As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.
The plural of the abbreviation SEO can also refer to "search engine optimizers", those who provide SEO services.


Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s, as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. Initially, all webmasters needed to do was to submit the address of a page, or URL, to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page, extract links to other pages from it, and return information found on the page to be indexed. The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server, where a second program, known as an indexer, extracts various information about the page, such as the words it contains and where these are located, as well as any weight for specific words, and all links the page contains, which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date.
Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results, creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan, the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. On May 2, 2007, Jason Gambert attempted to trademark the term SEO by convincing the Trademark Office in Arizona[5] that SEO is a "process" involving manipulation of keywords, and not a "marketing service." The reviewing attorney basically bought his incoherent argument that while "SEO" can't be trademarked when it refers to a generic process of manipulated keywords, it can be a service mark for providing "marketing the field of computers."
Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag, or index files in engines like ALIWEB. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable, however, because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. Inaccurate, incomplete, and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches.dubious – discuss] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines.
By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control, early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. To provide better results to their users, search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results, rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search, poor quality or irrelevant search results could lead users to find other search sources. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms, taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. Graduate students at Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, developed "Backrub," a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, PageRank, is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web, and follows links from one page to another. In effect, this means that some links are stronger than others, as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer.
Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its simple design.Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency, meta tags, headings, links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. Although PageRank was more difficult to game, webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine, and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. Many sites focused on exchanging, buying, and selling links, often on a massive scale. Some of these schemes, or link farms, involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming.
By 2004, search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. In June 2007, The New York Times' Saul Hansell stated Google ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. The leading search engines, Google, Bing, and Yahoo, do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. Some SEO practitioners have studied different approaches to search engine optimization, and have shared their 

Personal Opinions

Patents related to search engines can provide information to better understand search engines.
In 2005, Google began personalizing search results for each user. Depending on their history of previous searches, Google crafted results for logged in users. In 2008, Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search. He opined that it would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked, because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search.
In 2007, Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank. On June 15, 2009, Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. Matt Cutts, a well-known software engineer at Google, announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way, in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting.As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. In order to avoid the above, SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes, Flash and Javascript.
In December 2009, Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results.
On June 8, 2010 a new web indexing system called Google Caffeine was announced. Designed to allow users to find news results, forum posts and other content much sooner after publishing than before, Google caffeine was a change to the way Google updated its index in order to make things show up quicker on Google than before. According to Carrie Grimes, the software engineer who announced Caffeine for Google, "Caffeine provides 50 percent fresher results for web searches than our last index..."
Google Instant, real-time-search, was introduced in late 2010 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results.
In February 2011, Google announced the Panda update, which penalizes websites containing content duplicated from other websites and sources. Historically websites have copied content from one another and benefited in search engine rankings by engaging in this practice, however Google implemented a new system which punishes sites whose content is not unique.
In April 2012, Google launched the Google Penguin update the goal of which was to penalize websites that used manipulative techniques to improve their rankings on the search engine.
In September 2013, Google released the Google Hummingbird update, an algorithm change designed to improve Google's natural language processing and semantic understanding of web pages.
Relationship with search engines
By 1997, search engine designers recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines, and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. Early search engines, such as Altavista and Infoseek, adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings.
In 2005, an annual conference, AIRWeb, Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web was created to bring together practitioners and researchers concerned with search engine optimisation and related topics.
Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. In 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported on a company, Traffic Power, which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban. Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients.

Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry, and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences, chats, and seminars. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization.Google has a Sitemaps program to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. Bing Webmaster Tools provides a way for webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds, allows users to determine the crawl rate, and track the web pages index status.

Getting indexed

Search engines use complex mathematical algorithms to guess which websites a user seeks. In this diagram, if each bubble represents a web site, programs sometimes called spiders examine which sites link to which other sites, with arrows representing these links. Websites getting more inbound links, or stronger links, are presumed to be more important and what the user is searching for. In this example, since website B is the recipient of numerous inbound links, it ranks more highly in a web search. And the links "carry through", such that website C, even though it only has one inbound link, has an inbound link from a highly popular site (B) while site E does not. Note: percentages are rounded.
The leading search engines, such as Google, Bing and Yahoo!, use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. Two major directories, the Yahoo Directory and DMOZ both require manual submission and human editorial review. Google offers Google Webmaster Tools, for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found, especially pages that are not discoverable by automatically following links.
Yahoo! formerly operated a paid submission service that guaranteed crawling for a cost per click;
this was discontinued in 2009.
Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled.
Preventing crawling

Robots Exclusion Standard

To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes, webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots.txt file in the root directory of the domain. Additionally, a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. When a search engine visits a site, the robots.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. The robots.txt file is then parsed, and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file, it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. In March 2007, Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam.
Increasing prominence
A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility. Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase, so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data, including the title tag and meta description, will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings, thus increasing traffic. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls, using the canonical link element or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score.
White hat versus black hat techniques
SEO techniques can be classified into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design, and those techniques of which search engines do not approve. The search engines attempt to minimize the effect of the latter, among them spamdexing. Industry commentators have classified these methods, and the practitioners who employ them, as either white hat SEO, or black hat SEO.White hats tend to produce results that last a long time, whereas black hats anticipate that their sites may eventually be banned either temporarily or permanently once the search engines discover what they are doing.
An SEO technique is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception. As the search engine guidelines are not written as a series of rules or commandments, this is an important distinction to note. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines, but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users, not for search engines, and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders, rather than attempting to trick the algorithm from its intended purpose. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility,although the two are not identical.
Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines, or involve deception. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden, either as text colored similar to the background, in an invisible div, or positioned off screen. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine, a technique known as cloaking.
Another category sometimes used is grey hat SEO. This is in between black hat and white hat approaches where the methods employed avoid the site being penalised however do not act in producing the best content for users, rather entirely focused on improving search engine rankings.
Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods, either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms, or by a manual site review. One example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices.Both companies, however, quickly apologized, fixed the offending pages, and were restored to Google's list.

As a marketing strategy

SEO is not an appropriate strategy for every website, and other Internet marketing strategies can be more effective like paid advertising through pay per click (PPC) campaigns, depending on the site operator's goals. A successful Internet marketing campaign may also depend upon building high quality web pages to engage and persuade, setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure results, and improving a site's conversion rate.
SEO may generate an adequate return on investment. However, search engines are not paid for organic search traffic, their algorithms change, and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty, a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors. Search engines can change their algorithms, impacting a website's placement, possibly resulting in a serious loss of traffic. According to Google's CEO, Eric Schmidt, in 2010, Google made over 500 algorithm changes – almost 1.5 per day. It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic.
International markets
Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. The search engines' market shares vary from market to market, as does competition. In 2003, Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. In markets outside the United States, Google's share is often larger, and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. As of 2006, Google had an 85–90% market share in Germany. While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time, there were only about five in Germany.As of June 2008, the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise.That market share is achieved in a number of countries.
As of 2009, there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. In most cases, when Google is not leading in a given market, it is lagging behind a local player. The most notable example markets are China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu, Yahoo! Japan, Naver, Yandex and Seznam are market leaders.
Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages, registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market, and web hosting that provides a local IP address. Otherwise, the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same, regardless of language.

Legal precedents

On October 17, 2002, SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court, Western District of Oklahoma, against the search engine Google. SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. On May 27, 2003, the court granted Google's motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing "failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted."

In March 2006, KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. Kinderstart's website was removed from Google's index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. On March 16, 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart's complaint without leave to amend, and partially granted Google's motion for Rule 11 sanctions against KinderStart's attorney, requiring him to pay part of Google's legal expenses
source : wikipedia

Toshiba Chromebook 2 0

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Aruna wasantha liyanage | 3:43 PM | , , , ,

                                                                 Toshiba Chromebook 2

Keyboard & Touchpad

The Toshiba Chromebook 2 has a chiclet-style keyboard that mimics the look of a MacBook Air. We measured a key travel of 1.2 mm, which is slightly less than the average range of 1.5 to 2 mm. Although I found the layout comfortable, I scored a somewhat sluggish 76 words per minute on the challenge. My average is 90 wpm.

In general, the 4 x 2.8-inch touchpad responded well to my finger swipes and movements, although the cursor was a little sluggish at times.


You can get the Toshiba Chromebook 2 with either a 1366 x 768 screen for $249, or a 1920 x 1080-pixel screen for $329. The 1080p version also has IPS (in-plane switching) technology, which is designed to enhance color reproduction and improve viewing angles.

Our review model had the 1080p IPS display, which is truly lovely, with bold colors, sharp details and great viewing angles. I had to turn the Chromebook 2 nearly 90 degrees before the image quality degraded. When watching the trailer for Fury, I could clearly see the dirt that caked soldiers' faces, the vivid colors of fiery explosions and all of the detailed grittiness of the battlefields.

The Chromebook 2's display boasts excellent color reproduction. Based on our colorimeter readings, the screen can reproduce 98.5 percent of the sRGB color gamut. That's far better than the 65 percent ultraportable average, not to mention the Acer Chromebook 13 (58.1 percent) and the HP Chromebook 14 (61 percent).

The Chromebook 2 also produced very accurate colors, as evidenced by the screen's Delta-E score of 1 (0 is best). That's much better than the Acer Chromebook 13 (11.4) and a slight improvement on the HP Chromebook 14 (1.3).

It's also a bright display: Pumping out 339 nits, the Toshiba Chromebook 2 easily outshone the ultraportable category average (216 nits), as well as the Acer Chromebook 13 (222 nits) and the HP Chromebook 14 (209 nits).


Toshiba partnered with Skullcandy to bring specially tuned speakers to the Chromebook 2. And boy do they crank.

When I played Kiesza's "Hideaway" at maximum volume, I could hear the entire track clearly from across my apartment. The background of the track was a little muffled, but it wasn't too scratchy, and the vocals were powerful and crisp. On Barcelona's "Background," I could hear all the resonating piano chords, and the lead singer's voice was soft and melodious.

Ports & Webcam

The Toshiba Chromebook 2 has a standard array of ports. On the right side is a combination mic/headphone jack, USB 3.0, HDMI and a security lock port. On the left side is an SD Card slot, a USB 2.0 port and the charging port.

Selfies taken with the Chromebook 2's HD webcam looked a shade darker than normal, and there was massive pixelation around the edges of my eyes, nose and mouth. Large text in a sign behind me was legible, but smaller, thinner text quickly became blurred.


After streaming Hulu for 15 minutes, the Toshiba Chromebook 2 stayed pretty cool, measuring 88 degrees Fahrenheit on its underside. That's well below our acceptable threshold of 95 degrees Fahrenheit. The device's touchpad reached only 73 degrees, while the space between the G and H keys hit 78 degrees.

Chrome OS

Google's Chrome OS offers a clean, minimal desktop experience. Once you've powered up the Toshiba Chromebook 2 and signed in with your Google account, you're met with a bare desktop with small icons on the bottom right corner for notifications, time, volume, Wi-Fi and settings. On the bottom left side is Chrome OS's icon bar, with a square-grid icon that opens to show all of the apps you have installed. Next to that Start menu-esque icon are shortcuts to apps such as Google Chrome, Gmail and Hangouts.


The Chrome Web Store breaks apps down into categories like Education, Games, News & Weather, Social & Communication, and Utilities, to name a few. As ofthis review, there were 33,614 apps available in the Chrome Web Store, according to, a website that keeps track of the platform.

While that's not close to the 100,000 apps available for Windows, you'll be able to find some pretty compelling options, including Evernote, Spotify, Instagram, Bejeweled, Netflix, Feedly, DropBox and Picasa.

Offline Experience & Desktop Apps
Since Chrome OS is essentially a browser-based operating system, the majority of apps and extensions available require some kind of Internet connection. If most of your laptop activity is on the Internet (like mine is), then this limitation may not bother you. However, in areas with spotty or no Wi-Fi, you'll have to work with the offline functionality offered by Chrome OS and its apps.

Some apps have offline capabilities, including Angry Birds, Evernote, Duolingo and Vine. You can also program apps such as Google Docs and Google Drive to work offline, to a certain extent. For example, for Google Docs, you'll have to activate the Drive setting, which syncs all your documents for offline access.


The Toshiba Chromebook 2 is powered by a 2.58-GHz Intel Celeron N2840 processor; our review model has 4GB of RAM and a 16GB SSD hard drive, with 100GB of Google Drive space. The Celeron processor booted Chrome OS in a quick 8 seconds, which is right in between the Acer Chromebook 13 (7 seconds) and the HP Chromebook 14 (9 seconds).

Overall, the Chromebook 2 ran Chrome OS well, with little to no lag when loading videos or playing music. When I was multitasking, going in between many Chrome tabs with multimedia playing in some, each Web page took just a second or two longer to load than usual.

The Toshiba Chromebook 2 completed the Sunspider Javascript test in 564.6 milliseconds, making it faster than the Acer Chromebook 13 (625.5 milliseconds), which sports an Nvidia Tegra K1 processor, but slower than the HP Chromebook 14 (408.9 milliseconds), which has a 1.4-GHz Intel Celeron 2955U processor.

Graphics Performance

If you're looking to play games on your Chromebook, this is not your best option. On the Web GL Cubes test, which renders 150,000 rotating cubes with three lights to test graphics quality, the Toshiba Chromebook 2 notched 11 frames per second, which is just over half that of the Acer's 20 fps.

The Toshiba Chromebook 2 didn't fare well on the OortOnline.Gl test either. On this test, which shows a time-lapse animation of a year in the Oort Online game, the Toshiba Chromebook 2 scored 1,380, which is nowhere near as strong as the Acer Chromebook 13 (3,690) or the HP Chromebook 14 (2,940).

Battery Life

The Chromebook 2 has a 3-cell/44Wh lithium polymer battery that Toshiba claims can run up to 9 hours on a full charge. On the Laptop Mag Battery Test (Web surfing via Wi-Fi at 100 nits), this laptop lasted 7 hours and 49 minutes. That's a bit shy of both the Acer Chromebook 13 (8:08) and the HP Chromebook 14 (7:57), but not by much. 

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